systolic murmur (pan)

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Pansystolic murmurs occur throughout systole, and may be caused by:

  • mitral regurgitation:
    • the murmur is maximal at the apex and often in late systole
    • it is transmitted to the axilla

  • ventricular septal defect with a left to right shunt:
    • the murmur is maximal at the left lower sternal edge, and may be loudest when the defect is small

  • tricuspid regurgitation:
    • the murmur is maximal at the fourth left interspace with inspiratory augmentation and a systolic wave in the jugular venous pulse

Last reviewed 01/2018

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