The spread of urothelial cancer is via the following routes:
- direct invasion - through the bladder wall and perivesical fat, and into adjacent structures such as the prostate and uterus
- lymphatics - there are few lymphatics immediately under the bladder mucosa but they are abundant in its muscle wall. Bladder cancer that penetrates the muscle quickly reaches pelvic lymph nodes.
- haematogenous distant spread - to liver, lungs, bone, and brain
Last reviewed 01/2018