considerations in the fetus

Last reviewed 05/2021

Infants of women with established insulin dependent diabetes mellitus have 10 times the populaton risk of congenital malformations and five times the stillbirth rate. Most of the excess mortality in these infants is caused by the congenital malformations.

There is an increased risk of:

  • congenital abnormalities, especially:
    • cardiac
    • renal
    • neural tube defects
  • hypoxia and sudden intrauterine death after 36 weeks gestation
  • macrosomia


  1. Gillmer, M. D., 1996, Prescriber's Journal, 36 (3), 159-64.