LQT syndrome (congenital)

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The hereditary long QT syndrome is characterised by prolonged ventricular repolarisation. There is a significant risk of syncope, torsade de pointes and sudden death.

Hereditary long QT syndrome has a prevalence of about 1:5000 (1).

Predominant inheritance - Majority AD. Rarer forms AR

Variations in genes encoding for cardiac ion channels, accessory ion channel subunits or proteins modulating the function of the ion channel have been identified as disease-causing mutations in up to 75% of all long QT syndrome cases (4)

Presentation - Often asymptomatic.Syncope, arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death

Reference:

  1. British Heart Foundation (March 2006). Arrhythmias and Sudden Death - Implications for GPs.
  2. Shwartz, K. (1994). On the pulse of genetic cardiology. Nature Genet. 8, 110-1.
  3. British Heart Foundation (2009).Factfile 5/09, Inherited cardiovascular disease.
  4. Wilde AAM, Amin AS, Postema PG.Diagnosis, management and therapeutic strategies for congenital long QT syndrome. Heart Published Online First: 26 May 2021. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318259

Last edited 05/2021 and last reviewed 06/2021

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