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  • flow across valves and atrial or ventricular septal defects can be determined and quantified
  • cardiomegaly: the use of 2D echocardiography (a picture of a two-dimensional fan-shaped plane) may demonstrate focal and global hypokinesia, aneurysms, and pericardial effusions
  • vegetations and mural thrombi: these may be shown using echocardiography
  • muscular hypertrophy
  • morphology of valves and aortic root
  • severity from doppler measurement of velocity
  • aortic and mitral regurgitation - severity deduced from left ventricles and left atrium dimensions and size of regurgitant jet on colour flow mapping
  • aortic and mitral stenosis - severity deduced from velocity of blood flow across the valve

Last reviewed 01/2018