FREE subscriptions for doctors and students... click here
You have 3 more open access pages.

Medical treatment options include:

  • opiates - can help in the short-term, however long-term usage can be problematic
  • anticonvulsants e.g. carbamazepine - especially when shooting pain is the problem
  • tricyclic anti-depressants - especially useful for burning neuropathic pain

Surgical treatment options include:

  • re-operation on a tender neuroma may be of use in small number of patients
  • surgical destruction of the dorsal horns of the grey matter of the spinal cord - this procedure may be of benefit to patients with arm phantom limb pain; however this procedure may aggravate the existing cord injury

Other treatment options include acupuncture and electrical stimulation (TENS).

Last reviewed 01/2018