FREE subscriptions for doctors and students... click here
You have 3 more open access pages.

  • chest radiology - prominent central pulmonary vasculature with peripheral pruning
  • ECG may show right axis deviation and right sided strain
  • echocardiography - right atrial and right ventricular enlargement
  • cardiac catheterization

Other investigative procedures are directed to exclusion of other causes of pulmonary hypertension, e.g.:

  • chronic pulmonary emboli
  • cardiac valve disease
  • chronic lung disease

Last reviewed 01/2018