This visualises the entire nasopharynx and larynx, and may be performed with either a rigid or a flexible endoscope. The endoscope is passed through the nose after topical anaesthetic - usually cocaine - has been applied.
The technique is particularly valuable in patients in whom gagging or lack of co-operation precludes indirect methods.
It is indicated in all patients whom require thorough laryngeal examination, especially if carcinoma is suspected.
Last reviewed 01/2018