laryngoscopy (fibre-optic)

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This visualises the entire nasopharynx and larynx, and may be performed with either a rigid or a flexible endoscope. The endoscope is passed through the nose after topical anaesthetic - usually cocaine - has been applied.

The technique is particularly valuable in patients in whom gagging or lack of co-operation precludes indirect methods.

It is indicated in all patients whom require thorough laryngeal examination, especially if carcinoma is suspected.

Last reviewed 01/2018