bacterial respiratory tract infections in AIDS

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The common bacterial infections are:

  • chronic sinus disease:
    • 15% of HIV-infected patients have chronic sinusitis
    • most common when the CD4 count falls below 200/microl

  • bronchiectasis:
    • found increasingly commonly in AIDS patients
    • probably due to recurrent bacterial infection
    • Strep. pneumoniae and H. influenzae most common

  • bacterial pneumonia:
    • Strep. pneumoniae and H. influenzae most common (1)
    • Staph. aureus more common in advanced disease
    • clinical features similar to general population
    • chest radiograph may look unusual, often with diffuse infiltrates resembling P. carinii pneumonia (1)
    • complications such as cavitation, empyema and death are more common than in the normal population

  • tuberculosis and other atypical mycobacterial disease
    • common and important presenting disease in UK
    • may be seen in patients with a CD4 count of more than 200
    • less commonly atypical mycobacterial diseases (e.g. - mycobacterium avium intracellulare) is seen in late stage HIV (2)

  • nocardia pneumonia

Reference:

Last reviewed 01/2018

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