Trigger factors are reported commonly but there is little consistency between patients.
Dietary triggers affect about 20% of people (1).
Most attacks have no obvious trigger, and some triggers that are identified are unavoidable.
Trigger factors include:
- bright lights
- certain foods:
- alcoholic drinks
- tyramine containing foodstuffs (cheese, citrus fruits, chocolate)
- food may be considered a trigger when:
- migraine onset occurs within 6 hours of consumption
- the effect is reproducible
- withdrawal leads to improvement
- extremes of weather (e.g. very hot or cold, strong winds)
- long distance travel
- loud noise
- missing meals
- strenuous unaccustomed exercise
- too much or too little sleep
- emotional stress and anxiety
Last reviewed 05/2019