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Unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy is associated with an increased incidence of:

  • endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma
  • abnormal bleeding patterns

There is evidence of an increased risk of breast cancer if there has been more than 5 years of post-menopausal HRT.

There is a demonstrable increased risk of thrombosis (though very slight) with modern HRT formulations.

Last reviewed 09/2019