Congenital deformations are caused by any factor which restricts the mobility of the fetus, so causing prolonged compression in an abnormal position.
The deforming agent may be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic agents include neuromuscular disease, connective tissue disease and CNS malformations. Extrinsic agents include primigravidae, small maternal stature, oligohydramnios, breech presentation, uterine malformation and multiple pregnancies.
Deformations are correctible with external application of force. It is usual for the deformation to completely resolve in the neonatal period.
Congenital deformations include talipes, congenital hip dislocation, congenital postural scoliosis, plagiocephaly, torticollis and mandibular asymmetry.
Last reviewed 01/2018