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  • exposure to ultraviolet light:
    • usually occurs in fair-skinned, elderly people
    • may develop from pre-existing solar keratosis

  • chronic exposure to industrial carcinogens
    • arsenic, chromium compounds
    • ionising radiation
    • soot (carcinoma of the scrotum in chimney sweeps),
    • also tar, pitch, oils

  • chronic inflammation (Marjolin's ulcer):
    • margins of osteomyelitic sinuses
    • margins of long-standing ulcers
    • lupus vulgaris

  • genetic predisposition:
    • xeroderma pigmentosum
    • albinism

  • premalignant conditions:
    • Bowen's disease
    • leukoplakia
    • erythroplasia of Queyrat

  • immunosuppression e.g. renal transplant patients

Last reviewed 11/2018