Inactivated vaccines consist of either killed organisms i.e. pertussis vaccine, inactivated microbial exotoxin i.e. tetanus toxoid, or purified fractions of micro-organisms i.e. pneumococcus vaccine.
Inactivated vaccines are often weakly immunogenic and are thus less effective than live vaccines at inducing long lasting immunity. Inactivated vaccines are thus often combined with an adjuvant.
Last reviewed 01/2018