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granulomatous inflammation

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Granulomatous inflammation is a subtype of chronic inflammation. It is characterised by the formation of granulomas. It can be caused by infectious and non-infectious agents:

  • infection:
    • tuberculosis, causing a classical tubercle
    • leprosy
    • syphilis
    • brucellosis
    • cat scratch disease
    • granuloma inguinale
    • Schistosomiasis
    • Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Coccidiodes immitis
  • inorganic material:
    • silica
    • berylium
    • asbestos
    • pneumoconiosis
    • talc
    • zirconium
  • systemic diseases:
    • sarcoidosis
    • rheumatoid arthritis, causing rheumatoid nodules
    • Wegener's granulomatosis
    • Crohn's disease

Granulomatous inflammation is characterised by either a deficiency in:

  • ability to digest and degrade phagocytosed particle
  • activated cell-mediated immunity as witnessed by the frequent occurrence of lymphocytes


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