Last reviewed 01/2018
Coenzymes are usually low molecular weight molecules strongly bound to enzymes which aid in their catalytic activity. They are usually altered by reaction with the substrate, often acting as the temporary receptor of a molecular group, and are then regenerated by further reactions. Frequently, they are essential to the function of the enzyme.
Most are forms of vitamins e.g.:
- riboflavin forms flavin adenine dinucleotide
- thiamine forms thiamine pyrophosphate
- pantothenic acid forms coenzyme A
- nicotinamide forms nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
- folic acid forms tetrahydrofolate