complications

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Complications include:

  • infertility in bilateral undescent; no more common in unilateral cases
  • associated indirect inguinal or interstitial hernia
  • increased risk of malignancy, particularly seminomas in the late second or third decade
  • increased risk of testicular torsion
  • increased risk of trauma to the testis
  • atrophy from recurrent trauma

Last reviewed 01/2018

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