Last reviewed 01/2018

Several types of plasma cell neoplasms can be seen all of which are associated with a monoclonal (or myeloma) protein (M protein) (1). They include:

  • monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or asymptomatic myeloma
    • patients are asymptomatic
    • follow up is needed due to the risk of progressing to a symptomatic disease
  • solitary myeloma or solitary plasmocytoma
    • uncommon, accounts for ≤5% of all plasma cell neoplasms
    • is a localised disease which consists of a solitary neoplastic mass of plasma cells found in bone or some soft tissue site
    • can be subdivided into
      • isolated plasmacytoma of the bone
      • extramedullary plasmacytoma (1,2)
  • multiple myeloma
    • the most common form
    • is a disseminated neoplasm characterised by multiple neoplastic tumor masses of plasma cells, haphazardly scattered throughout the skeletal system and sometimes in soft tissues.