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  • prolonged, augmented or induced labours
  • multiple pregnancies
  • thick meconium staining of amniotic fluid
  • growth retardation
  • preterm fetus
  • audible heart rate decelerations
  • during the trial of a caesarian scar
  • patient preference
  • medicolegal indications:
    • the trace provides a permanent record which may help to show that any complications of labour were neither preventable nor predictable

Last reviewed 01/2018