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Pre-renal causes:

  • hypovolaemia, for example acute haemorrhage, burns
  • circulatory failure - heart failure or shock

Renal causes:

  • acute tubular nephropathy, for example ischaemic acute tubular necrosis
  • acute interstitial nephropathy, for example in ascending urinary tract infection
  • acute glomerulonephritis - Goodpasture's syndrome
  • haemolytic uraemic syndrome
  • drugs - cytotoxics such as cisplatin or streptozotocin, aminoglycosides such as gentamicin, tetracyclines, NSAIDs, ACE-inhibitors
  • malignant hypertension
  • following blood transfusion
  • multiple myeloma
  • hepatorenal syndrome

Post renal causes:

  • obstructive lesions like stones, prostatic hypertrophy, congenital obstructive disorders

Last reviewed 01/2018