smoking and Graves' disease

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  • smoking increases the risk of Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmology (odds ratio 1.9 and 7.7 in smokers versus non-smokers)

  • patients who smoke who have Graves' disease - particularly with significant ophthalmology - should be advised to stop smoking

Reference:

  • BMJ (1999), 319, 894-99

Last reviewed 09/2020

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