smoking and Graves' disease

FREE subscriptions for doctors and students... click here
You have 3 more open access pages.

  • smoking increases the risk of Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmology (odds ratio 1.9 and 7.7 in smokers versus non-smokers)

  • patients who smoke who have Graves' disease - particularly with significant ophthalmology - should be advised to stop smoking


  • BMJ (1999), 319, 894-99

Last reviewed 09/2020