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Causes include:

  • prematurity
  • birth asphyxia
  • birth trauma with or without intraventricular haemorrhage
  • hypoglycaemia
  • hypocalcaemia
  • infection
  • maternal sedation which continues into neonatal life
  • hypothermia
  • hypovolaemia
  • anaemia

Adapted from "Medical Lists for Examinations", Gabriel and Gabriel, Butterworth Heinemann.

Last reviewed 01/2018