Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis occurs in immunocompromised patients.
- characterised by a 'pizza pie' fundus:
- retinal spots which are the result of superficial retinal infarction
- also flame shaped haemorrhages
- associated with a low CD4 count
- CMV retinitis may be asymptomatic. This condition may present with suddent (and untreatable) visual loss
Other manifestations of cytomegalovirus infection in these patients includes encephalitis, pneumonitis, and diffuse gastro-intestinal involvement.
These patients are treated with ganciclovir (or foscarnet in cases of reduced sensitivity to ganciclovir).
Last reviewed 06/2021