retinitis (cytomegalovirus)

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis occurs in immunocompromised patients.

CMV retinitis

  • characterised by a 'pizza pie' fundus:
    • retinal spots which are the result of superficial retinal infarction
    • also flame shaped haemorrhages
  • associated with a low CD4 count
  • CMV retinitis may be asymptomatic. This condition may present with suddent (and untreatable) visual loss

Other manifestations of cytomegalovirus infection in these patients includes encephalitis, pneumonitis, and diffuse gastro-intestinal involvement.

These patients are treated with ganciclovir (or foscarnet in cases of reduced sensitivity to ganciclovir).

Last reviewed 06/2021

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