aetiology

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The common cause is viral infection with Coxsackie virus.

Other causes:

  • infective:
    • viral e.g. influenza
    • bacterial e.g. diphtheria
    • protozoal e.g. Chagas disease

  • metabolic:
    • pregnancy
    • thyroid disease
    • thiamine deficiency
    • thyroid disease
    • amyloidosis

  • connective tissue disease:
    • SLE
    • rheumatoid arthritis

  • infiltrative sarcoidosis and leukaemia

  • neuromuscular:
    • Friedreich's ataxia
    • Duchenne muscular dystrophy

  • drugs:
    • aresenic
    • alcohol
    • phenothiazines

  • radiation

Last reviewed 01/2018

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