clinical features

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Presentation is variable so that it is useful to approach the condition in terms of specific features to consider.

  • reduced visual acuity - always present
  • pain - present in syphilis, endogenous bacterial infection, and conditions involving the optic nerve. Usually absent in toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis and CMV retinitis.
  • redness of the eye - present in diffuse uveitis; absent in toxoplasmosis or histoplasmosis
  • unilateral involvement - more likely to be due to toxoplasmosis, candidiasis, toxocariasis, CMV, or endogenous bacterial infection
  • hypopyon in the anterior uvea - in conditions such as Behcet's disease, toxocariasis, and endogenous bacterial infection
  • mutton fat keratitic precipitates - in conditions such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis
  • glaucoma - may develop in toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, and sarcoidosis
  • inflammatory changes in the vitreous humour - severe in Behcet's disease and toxoplasmosis
  • retinal involvement - retinitis is often more prominent than choroiditis in toxoplasmosis, CMV, herpes, and rubella
  • choroid involvement - choroiditis is the primary target of tuberculosis and Lyme disease
  • mode of onset - toxoplasmosis, CMV and bacterial infections are likely to present with sudden onset; other causes are usually more insidious

Last reviewed 01/2018

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