investigations

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  • ECG - often atrial fibrillation and right ventricular hypertrophy or right bundle branch block.
  • chest x-ray - cardiomegaly (enlarged right atrium, right ventricle).
  • echocardiography - right atrial and right ventricular enlargement with abnormal tricuspid cusps. Doppler scanning reveals regurgitation.
  • cardiac catheterization and angiography - thickened cusps, tricuspid regurgitation.

Last reviewed 11/2021