Blood tests include:
- urea, which increases
- calcium, which is low:
- secondary to renal phosphate retention and acquired vitamin D resistance
- lack of activated vitamin D leads to reduced calcium absorption from the gut
- hyperphosphataemia - due to reduced excretion
- uric acid - often raised - however clinical gout rarely occurs
- reduced creatinine clearance
Other important investigations include:
- renal imaging
- the gold standard is renal biopsy
A diabetic patient should be screened for diabetic retinopathy. The presence of diabetic retinopathy in a diabetic patient with chronic renal failure is suggestive of diabetic glomerulosclerosis.
An ECG will demonstrate cardiac arrhythmias caused by electrolyte imbalance.
Last reviewed 01/2018