clinical features

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Clinical features:

  • congestive heart failure
  • thrombo-embolism
  • arrhythmias e.g. atrial fibrillation, especially if alcohol is a causative factor
  • apex beat is displaced and diffuse
  • soft S1 (possible mitral or tricuspid incompetence)
  • loud P2 if pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular failure
  • gallup rhythm - S3 (left ventricular and right ventricular failure)

Last reviewed 01/2018