nephrocalcinosis

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Nephrocalcinosis is parenchymal calcium deposition in the kidney. It is usually a consequence of hypercalcaemia, and there may be intracellular renal damage caused by calcium overload.

Initial deposits occur in the mitochondria of renal cells, later whole nephrons become calcified. The result is patchy atrophy and calcification of the kidney.

Causes include:

  • malignancy (commonest cause)
  • multiple myeloma
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • sarcoidosis
  • vitamin D intoxication

Investigations:

  • blood tests - hyercalcaemia, increased creatinine
  • urine tests - haematuria, proteinuria, pyuria, hypercalciuria
  • abdominal Xray - may reveal renal calculi or nephrocalcinosis

Treatment aims to correct the hypercalcaemia.

Last reviewed 01/2018

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