differential diagnosis

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Differential diagnosis of haematuria varies significantly:

  • it is important to establish that haematuria is in fact red blood cells in the urine; some dyes, drugs such as rifampicin, and foods, such as beetroot, can cause a red urine. A positive dipstick test may also reflect haemoglobinuria and not haematuria.
  • urinary tract malignancy - kidney, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra
  • urinary tract stones
  • urinary tract infection
  • nephrological disease: IgA nephropathy, glomerulonephritis
  • benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • bleeding disorders, anticoagulation therapy above therapeutic range
  • trauma: penetrating or blunt
  • menstruation
  • exercise-induced haematuria


Last reviewed 01/2018