Last edited 04/2020 and last reviewed 07/2021

Some information about the epidemiology of renal stones is presented below (1,2,3):

  • overall prevalence of urinary calculi is:
    • assuming a life expectancy of 81 years, the lifeime prevalence equals approximately 13.0% (2,3) - patients treated solely in the community are not included in this estimate (2,3)
    • urolithiasis is a common disease and has been becoming more prevalent in the Western world in recent years - however, this trend seems to be slowing down in England since 2010 (3)
    • Wilcox et al state that the "incidence of kidney stone disease (urolithiasis) has a lifetime risk of 10–15%, and a recurrence rate of 50% within 10 years" (4)

  • males are affected more than females - 2.5:1

  • bimodal age distribution - peak incidences in mid-20's and mid-50's, the later peak principally due to infective stones in women

  • upper tract calculi predominate in developed countries

  • bladder calculi are more common in developing countries

  • stones are unilateral in approximately 80% of cases

  • across the population right and left upper tracts are equally affected

  • incidence of upper tract calculi is increasing (2,3)
    • number of upper urinary tract (UUT) stone hospital episodes increased by 63% to 83,050 in the 10-year period 2000/2001 to 2009/2010
    • total number of UUT stone hospital episodes increased slightly from 83 050 in 2009-2010 to 86 742 in 2014-2015 (4.4% increase).