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  • blood pressure:
    • a wide pulse pressure, that is a high systolic and low diastolic pressure

  • ECG:
    • left ventricular hypertrophy

  • chest X-ray:
    • bilated left ventricle and dilated ascending aorta

  • echocardiography and doppler

  • cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography

Last reviewed 01/2018