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  • blepharospasm is the spasmodic closure of the eyes as a result of involuntary contraction of orbicularis oculi. Commonly blepharospasm occurs as a response to ocular pain.

  • repetitive blepharospasm is a form of focal dystonia
    • this condition may be exacerbated by stress
    • there may be other co-existing dystonias (e.g. oro-mandibular)
    • generally starts unilaterally and then bilateral blepharospasm develops

  • may be anteceded by particular conditions e.g. progressive supranuclear palsy, use of neuroleptic drugs, Parkinson's disease

  • treatment measures include:
    • anticholinergic drugs e.g. benzhexol
    • botulinum toxin


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