Last reviewed 01/2018

  • bronchial occlusion due to inhaled foreign body
  • bronchiectasis
  • cystic fibrosis
  • penetrating trauma to the lungs
  • spread from a neighbouring organ - for example, suppuration in the oesophagus, spine, subphrenic space or pleural cavity
  • infection of congenital or acquired cysts
  • tracheo-oesophageal fistula
  • ciliary abnormalities - Kartagener's or ciliary diskinesia
  • hyperimmunoglobulin E / Job's syndrome