cardiac wall (development)

Last reviewed 01/2018

The layers of the mature cardiac wall have different developmental origins:

  • endocardium:
    • forms from splanchnic mesoderm after induction by ventral endoderm
    • mesoderm forms angioblasts which then go on to form endothelial cells
  • myocardium:
    • during folding of the embryo around day 17, the future endocardium takes surrounding uninduced mesoderm with it
    • the latter mesoderm envelopes the heart tube within the pericardial cavity and is continuous with the dorsal mesocardium
    • it condenses and grows in thickness to form the myocardium
  • epicardium: formed from migration of cells from the sinus venosus of the heart tube superficial to the myocardium