paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND)

Last reviewed 04/2022

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea is an acute form of dyspnoea that causes the patient to awake from sleep. The patient is forced to sit upright or stand out of bed for relief.

This condition is associated with pulmonary oedema.

It may be difficult to distinguish this condition from nocturnal attacks of bronchial asthma. One distinguishing feature is the absence of morning tightness, a factor characteristic of asthma.

Patients with chronic airflow limitation may have similar nocturnal episodes of dyspnoea.