technical points

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Pulsed doppler enables the determination of blood velocity at any point along the path of the beam and so is useful in locating a defect.

Continuous wave doppler is better for high velocity jets as seen in aortic stenosis.

Real-time colour doppler displays a colour representation of doppler shifts over a moving ultrasound image. Trained observers can quickly distinguish the patterns of normal and abnormal blood flow.

Practically, pressure gradients can be estimated from the determination of jet velocity:

Pressure gradient = 4 x peak velocity^2

(Pressure in mmHg and velocity in m/s)

Last reviewed 01/2018

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