- chest radiology
- white cells - raised; often greater than 15 x 10^9 per litre
- ESR - raised; may exceed 100 mm in an hour
- CRP - raised
Sputum examination and culture, and blood culture - positive in 25-40% of cases, are essential in management of a patient with pneumonia. It may possible to demonstrate pneumococcal antigen in both blood and sputum.
Last reviewed 01/2018