protein (causes of increased and reduced levels)

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Causes of reduced protein levels include:

  • nutritional deficiency
    • malabsorption
    • kwashiorkor
    • marasmus
  • decreased or ineffective protein synthesis
    • severe liver disease
    • agammaglobulinaemia
  • increased protein loss
    • renal e.g. nephrotic syndrome
    • GI disease e.g. protein-losing enteropathies, surgical resection
    • severe skin diseasee.g. burns, pemphigus vulgaris
  • increased catabolism e.g. fever, hyperthyroidism, malignancy, inflammation, chronic diseases
  • dilutional e.g. IV fluids, water intoxication, syndrome of inappropriate ADH

Causes of increased protein levels include:

  • hypergammaglobulinaemis (mono- or polyclonal)
  • hypovolaemic states

Last reviewed 01/2018

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