smoking and chronic kidney disease (CKD)

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  • the study examined the factors associated with CKD in a population-based cohort in Wisconsin, with emphasis on smoking and consumption of alcohol
  • CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 ml/minute per 1.73 m^2 from serum creatinine.
    • 1) cross-sectional analysis among 4,898 persons with prevalent CKD (n = 324) as the outcome of interest
    • 2) longitudinal analysis among 3,392 CKD-free persons at baseline, with 5-year incident CKD (n = 114) between 1993 and 1995 as the outcome of interest
      • smoking and heavy drinking, defined as consumption of four or more servings of alcohol per day, were associated with CKD, independent of several important confounders
      • compared with that among never smokers, the odds ratio of developing CKD was 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 2.00) among former smokers and 1.97 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.36) among current smokers
      • heavy drinking was associated with CKD, with an odds ratio of 1.99 (95% CI: 0.99, 4.01)
      • joint exposure to both current smoking and heavy drinking was associated with almost fivefold odds of developing CKD compared with their absence (odds ratio = 4.93, 95% CI: 2.45, 9.94)
      • smoking and consumption of four or more servings of alcohol per day are associated with CKD


  1. Shankar A et al. The association among smoking, heavy drinking, and chronic kidney disease. Am J Epidemiol 2006;164:263-71

Last reviewed 01/2018