smoking and breast cancer

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  • smoking and breast cancer risk
    • most studies on active cigarette smoking show no association with breast cancer (1)
      • some investigators, however, have argued that most of these studies have failed to consider that both nonsmokers and smokers are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which has potentially masked any effects of active smoking on breast cancer
    • a US observational study concluded that regular ETS exposure is causally related to breast cancer diagnosed in younger, primarily premenopausal women and that the association is not likely explained by bias or confounding (2)


  1. Gammon MD et al. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence. Environmental Research 2004; 96 (2):76-185
  2. Miller MD et al. The association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer: a review by the California Environmental Protection Agency. Prev Med. 2007 Feb;44(2):93-106

Last reviewed 01/2018