This site is intended for healthcare professionals
Login | Register (NOW FREE)

Medical search

CIN high - grade (HG) dyskaryosis

FREE subscriptions for doctors and students... click here
You have 3 open access pages.

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is the preinvasive stage of cervical cancer. It denotes atypical changes in the transformation zone - that part of the cervix in which exposed normal columnar epithelium is gradually replaced by normal squamous epithelium through metaplasia.

Metaplasia is enhanced by vaginal acidity and is most active during adolescence and the first pregnancy. The strong association between the development of malignancy with early sexual activity, and early age of first pregnancy is thought to be due to exposure of the transformation zone to carcinogens at times when it is most active and therefore, most vulnerable.

Cervical smear result

  • for many women their abnormal result will show borderline changes or mild (low-grade) dyskaryosis. The areas of changed cells are known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or CIN. CIN is graded on a scale of 1 to 3. Mild (low-grade) dyskaryosis is associated with the grade CIN 1
  • Severe (high-grade) dyskaryosis is associated with CIN2 and CIN3

CIN is a histological diagnosis. It is important as:

  • cytological changes in the transformation zone can be screened for and related to CIN
  • treatment of CIN is relatively uncomplicated and curative
  • low-grade CIN lesions rarely become invasive (1,2)
  • risk of invasive cervical cancer is more than double that of the general population at least 10 years after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (3)
    • women are at an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer more than 25 years after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3
    • risk of invasive disease is noticeably increased in women aged more than 50 when treated
    • risk of vaginal cancer is increased in women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3



The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions LtdĀ®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions LtdĀ® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence. GPnotebook stores small data files on your computer called cookies so that we can recognise you and provide you with the best service. If you do not want to receive cookies please do not use GPnotebook.