FREE subscriptions for doctors and students... click here
You have 3 more open access pages.


Diagnosis of HZ is usually clinical.

If there is a diagnostic uncertainty, laboratory confirmation is required e.g. -:

  • herpes zoster without a rash (zoster sine herpete)
  • HZ of the face and genital areas, as these areas are the natural sites for recurrent labial and genital herpes respectively
  • atypical mucocutaneous forms (1,2)

Fluid from vesicles may be used for polymerase chain reaction testing, viral culture, or direct immunofluorescent antigen staining (1).


Last edited 12/2018 and last reviewed 07/2021