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Short term:

  • weight loss, of both muscle protein and subcutaneous fat
  • hypoproteinaemia and oedema
  • delayed wound healing
  • impaired immune function
  • reduced mobilisation
  • reduced response to therapy
  • apathy and fatigue
  • increased susceptibility to infection and pressure sores

Long term:

  • increased morbidity
  • prolonged hospitalisation
  • prolonged convalescence
  • increased mortality

Last reviewed 08/2019