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Hypovolaemia is assessed using urine output, pulse rate, blood pressure and capillary return.
These may be used to determine the grade of shock.
Capillary return is said to be decreased if the blanching of skin produced by pressure at an extremity remains longer than 2 seconds, or the time to say "capillary return".
A drop in blood pressure, i.e. grade III, is a late sign in shock and is often preterminal.