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Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy

Authoring team

Lungs and airways:

  • chronic obstructive airways disease
  • bronchiectasis
  • pneumonia

Thoracic cage and pleura - restrictive chest wall / lung disease:

  • crushed chest
  • kyphoscoliosis
  • extensive thoracic surgery
  • ankylosing spondylitis

CNS - respiratory depression:

  • trauma
  • cerebral tumour
  • raised intracranial pressure
  • drugs - e.g. narcotics


  • cervical cord lesion
  • motor neurone disease
  • Guillain-Barre
  • muscular dystrophies
  • myasthenia gravis
  • status epilepticus

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The content herein is provided for informational purposes and does not replace the need to apply professional clinical judgement when diagnosing or treating any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.


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