FREE subscriptions for doctors and students... click here
You have 3 more open access pages.

Relative risk of death from bronchial carcinoma is related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day:

  • non-smokers: 0.07 lung cancer deaths/year/1000
  • 1-14 cig/day: 0.78 lung cancer deaths/year/1000
  • 14-24 cig/day: 1.27 lung cancer deaths/year/1000
  • > 24 cig/day: 2.51 lung cancer deaths/year/1000

The male:female ratio is 7:1; this ratio is decreasing as the incidence of bronchial carcinoma in females is increasing.

The peak incidence of bronchial carcinoma is in the sixth decade in males and in the seventh decade in females.

Bronchial carcinoma is rare before the age of 25 years.

More than 90% of patients are symptomatic at the time of diagnosis (1).

  1. (1) Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer (April 2000). NHS Executive.

Last reviewed 02/2021