staging of breast carcinoma

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There have been many systems proposed for the staging of breast carcinoma. All are anatomical systems giving a guide to prognosis. The prognosis has a direct influence on management.

There are several problems with the staging systems:

  • clinical assessment of size of primary and nodal disease is inaccurate
  • pathological data of greater accuracy is only available after surgery

Some commonly used staging systems are detailed in the submenu:

  • Manchester system
  • TNM system

Last reviewed 01/2018